1. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence. Include the passive of know, think or believe.
1) It’s known that there were early human settlements near natural salt deposits.
There _________ near natural salt deposits.
2) Soldiers in the ancient Roman ar are known to have received salt as part of their wages.
It _________ salt as part of their wages.
3) A thousand years ago, salt was thought to be as valuable as gold.
A thousand years ago, it _________ as valuable as gold.
4) It’s thought that a British tax on salt was one of the factors which led to Indian independence.
A British tax on salt _________ which led to Indian independence.
5) In some cultures even today, it’s believed that salt has magical powers.
In some cultures even today, salt _________ magical powers.
6) It’s believed that there are health problems connected with eating too much salt.
There are _________ connected with eating too much salt.
1) are known to have been early human settlements
2) is known that soldiers in the ancient Roman ar received
3) was thought that salt was
4) is thought to have been one of the factors
5) is believed to have
6) believed to be health problems
2. Underline the mistakes and write the sentences correctly.
1) Two thousand years ago, the earth was known it was round.
2) The dinosaurs are believed to die out because of a huge meteor impact.
3) There have been known to be jellyfish in the sea for more than 500 million years.
4) Today, the earth was known to have been 4.5 billion years old.
1) Two thousand years ago, the earth was known to be round.
2) The dinosaurs are believed to have died out because of a huge meteor impact.
3) There are known to have been jellyfish in the sea for more than 500 million years.
4) Today, the earth is known to be 4.5 billion years old.
3. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence. Use the passive with may/might, should or must.
1) It’s possible somebody told Josh about the party.
2) It’s essential to play for tickets in advance.
3) It’s good to water plants once a week.
4) It’s possible rabbits will eat our crops.
Our crops ________
5) The only logical conclusion is that somebody stole our satellite dish.
Our satellite dish ________
1) may / might have been told about the party
2) must be paid for in advance
3) should be watered once a week
4) may / might be eaten by rabbits
5) must have been stolen
4. Complete the sentences with the passive gerund or passive infinitive of the verbs in the box.
call collect elect give
interview see tell treat
1) I really can’t stand __________ flowers.
2) Do you remember __________ to clean your room?
3) Our babysitter wants __________ a childcare professional.
4) dad hopes __________ president of the golf club.
5) Beyoncé will never agree __________ for your magazine.
6) The shoplifter avoided __________ by security guards.
7) I’ve arranged __________ by taxi at midnight.
8) These days, women at work expect __________ more fairly than in the past.
1) being given 2) being told 3) to be called 4) to be elected
5) to be interviewed 6 being seen 7) to be collected
8) to be treated
Complete these sentences with your own ideas. Begin with a passive gerund or passive infinitive.
1) I’m used to ________
2) Can you imagine ________ ?
3) One day, I hope ________
4) I don’t remember ________
5) Most people would prefer ________________ than ________